The beginning: the magic square

Everything begins with the magic squares, which emerge already very early in history. The Romans, the Chinese and Babylonier knew them already and sprayed the squares already at that time a breath at magic and contained an alleged secret not rarely.

From what does a magic square build itself up?
It concerns a square arrangement of letters or numbers, which must fulfill certain requirements. Example of a magic square, is the Saturn seal from China. If one all 3 numbers in a column or a line added keeps one always the same sum, 15. This is even with the diagonals the case.

A very well-known magic square is the 4×4 square on the copper pass Melencolia I von Albrecht Duerer (1471-1528). In the right upper corner it is to be recognized.

As is the case for previous mentioned Saturn seals result in all lines and columns, as well as the diagonals, always the same sum, 34.

It is however not yet everything; also the 2×2 Unterquadrate in the corners and in the center as well as the hitting a corner fields together added, results in as sum 34.

Also the developing year of the copper pass inserted Duerer into the magic square: the two middle numbers of the lowest row form the year 1514.

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